Nanofiber-Reinforced Silver Nanowires Network as a Robust, Ultrathin, and Conformable Epidermal Electrode for Ambulatory Monitoring of Physiological Signals
Authors: Liu, L; Li, HY; Fan, YJ; Chen, YH; Kuang, SY; Li, ZB; Wang, ZL; Zhu, G
Volume: 15 Issue: 22 Published: MAY 2019 Language: English Document type: Article
Extremely soft and thin electrodes with high skin conformability have potential applications in wearable devices for personal healthcare. Here, a submicrometer thick, highly robust, and conformable nanonetwork epidermal electrode ( NEE) is reported. Electrospinning of polyamide nanofibers and electrospraying of silver nanowires are simultaneously performed to form a homogeneously convoluted network in a nonwoven way. For a 125 nm thick NEE, a low sheet resistance of approximate to 4 Omega sq(-1) with an optical transmittance of approximate to 82% is achieved. Due to the nanofiber-based scaffold that undertakes most of the stress during deformation, the electric resistance of the NEE shows very little variation; less than 1.2% after 50 000 bending cycles. The NEE can form a fully conformal contact to human skin without additional adhesives, and the NEE shows a contact impedance that is over 50% lower than what is found in commercial gel electrodes. Due to conformal contact even under deformation, the NEE proves to be a stable, robust, and comfortable approach for measuring electrocardiogram signals, especially when a subject is in motion. These features make the NEE promising for use in the ambulatory measurement of physiological signals for healthcare applications.